Ducati - 2001
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The Ducati Monster dominated the motorcycling scene throughout the '90s in a "crescendo" that propelled the bike into the new millennium as a universally acknowledged benchmark in its class.
Styling and performance make for a unique personality that is mean yet captivating and calls out to the hearts of a huge, most diverse audience: from female motorcyclists to those who love the strong, masculine emotions of extreme sports riding matched with a boldly upright riding position.
The new millennium presents a new arrival to the Monster family: the Monster S4.
In many respects, the new Monster S4 is a totally new model that has borrowed its strong personality and stylish design from its predecessors.
The frame is derived from the ST series, while the heart of the bike is a 916 cc Desmo Eight Valve engine.
The Monster S4 has been totally revised in all features that affect performance, such as power, wheel and suspension quality, safety and accurate construction details.
2001 MONSTERS: THE RANGE
The engine sizes of the "air-cooled two-valve Desmo" range remain unchanged: 400 (exclusively produced for the Japanese market), 600, 750 and 900 cc.
400, 600 and 750 feature carburettors, whereas the 900 uses electronic injection like the 2000 model.
Ducati offers the Monster 900 in four different versions and three versions of the Monster 600 and 750.
The Monster 900 versions include "Dark", still an unrivalled success within the successful Monster family; "Metallic", basically a variant of the Dark topped with the glint of metal; the compelling and, exclusive "Cromo", and the range-topping "Special" version.
All Monster versions feature upgraded performance and improved agility. The engines have also undergone refinement modifications, especially regarding component quality, and are now brought even closer to their top performance and reliability potential.
The Monster has become a "simple" bike, not only thanks to its ability to offer totally safe performance, but also due to the fact that it is technically user-friendly. This is not just an expression of Ducati's engineering principles, but is something helps to improve overall reliability and performance over time.
The 2001 Monster range comes in the following colours:
A BRIEF OUTLINE OF THE NEW FEATURES
MONSTER 900 AND 900S
2001 DUCATI MONSTER: THE PRODUCT
New toothed timing belt rollers have been adopted in order to reduce timing tolerance in single-camshaft engines. The hub of these belt rollers can be taken apart from the rim to facilitate timing and improve accuracy. Thanks to this solution, Ducati engineers reduced permitted tolerance to as little as 2° over theoretical ideal timing.
From the customer's viewpoint, this technical update translates into lower routine maintenance costs, as the service inspection will require considerably fewer operations than in the past.
All engines feature fully air-cooled cylinders, a design feature first introduced on 900cc engines, as well as a new more efficient oil pump.
The Monster 750, 900 and 900S are fitted with new oil coolers. These are a new, aesthetically pleasing design by KTM, the leading European manufacturer, for guaranteed improved efficiency.
The starting assembly of the twin-cylinder engines, meaning the "starter motor-sprocket/gear wheel pair ratio", was recalculated to improve starting behaviour under all environmental conditions with a minimum current draw from the battery.
The new sealed-for-life battery uses state-of-the-art technology to further enhance performance. The new battery is more compact and lighter than its traditional predecessors and provides a higher starting discharge. Combined together, the new and improved electrical wiring and the new battery take 1 Kg off the weight of the 2001 Monsters.
Therefore, the fuel-injected 900 retains its 78 HP at 8250 rpm, with 7.4 kgm peak torque at 6750 rpm. The air-cooled two-valve 600cc engines, delivering 51 HP at 8000 rpm and 5.1 kgm peak torque at 6000 rpm. The 750cc engines, turn out 62 HP at 7500 rpm and 6.3 kgm torque at 6500 rpm.
The 2001 models underwent minor - yet technically significant - refinements.
Almost hidden from sight but nonetheless significant are the new larger diameter 12 mm engine mounting linkages.
Traditionally a load-bearing element in Ducati chassis concept, the engine is thus more securely and rigidly integrated into the frame. As a result, the chassis of 2001 Monsters provide greater torsion stiffness than the previous editions.
New on all models is the position of the rear brake calliper, now on top of rather than underneath the swingarm to reduce possible noise.
The Monster 900 and 900S now use the same components, with special regard to the front and rear suspension. The front end features a totally adjustable Showa upside-down fork with 43 mm legs like the 2000 Monster 900 S.
The rear suspension combines an aluminium swing arm derived from the Superbike 888 with a Sachs mono-shock with spring pre-load, compression and rebound adjustment that demonstrated excellent performance on some 2000 models and became established among engineers and motorcyclists as a reliable, consistent component.
To further enhance the quality of the Monster 900/900S, the 2001 bikes use exclusively high-performance Superbike-type tyres.
STYLING AND FINISH
All 2001 versions are characterised by a more stringent chromatic harmonisation of technical elements. The engine is now an elegant metallic silver-grey, rigidly embedded in the "gun metal grey" frame (on the standard, Special and S4 versions). This is the same colour used for the frame of Ducati Superbike racing bikes.
This "gun metal grey" colour highlights the essential design of the Brembo hollow three-spoke wheels.
The 600 and 750 are available in the Standard, Dark and Metallic versions.
All feature a new instrument cluster including a tachometer derived from the 2000 Monster 900. The heat guards protecting against the heat from the exhaust pipes are stainless steel.
The 2001 Monster 600 Dark comes with a high quality, high efficiency fuel tank made from polyamides moulding obtained from rotary technology. Offering a flawless finish and greater shock resistance than its metal counterpart, this fuel tank also weighs 1 kg less.
The Monster Metallic is available in a range of beautiful "metal flake" metallic colours that change according to the intensity of the light, and a 3-D embossed Ducati logo decal on the fuel tank.
The Monster 900 comes in four versions. From the most economic to the most pricey, these are the Dark, Metallic, Cromo and Special versions.
The Monster 900 also has the metallic silver grey engine with "gun metal grey" frame and wheels (black on Dark, Metallic and Cromo versions) and is equipped with a new instrument cluster featuring a speedometer with 260 kph scale.
The Dark and Metallic versions feature new stainless steel heat guards at the exhaust.
The Monster 900 Cromo features numerous details in carbon-fibre (front mudguard, side panels, heat-guard) and is also fitted with a chromium plated fuel tank.
Finally, the Monster 900S offers a plastic rear mudguard, Sachs rear shock absorber, in addition to all the improvements of the 900 range.
The Monster S4 is not a variant of the Monster S, but an entirely new project.
Centred around a neat layout of all components, its technical content, performance and rational approach, the Monster S4 project has remained absolutely true to the original styling concept.
In order to define each detail in the most rational and accurate way, Ducati used for the first time advanced Unigraphics software for computerised 3D modelling.
Such highly sophisticated computer technology enabled accurate structural and functional verification prior to the construction of the operating prototype.
As a result, development time was dramatically shortened and the project totally optimised before implementation.
The Monster S4 stems from the robust ST4 frame, the 916 cc Desmoquattro twin-cylinder engine with modified head and lowered exhaust cam and the new rear suspension with aluminium swingarm sized to obtain a 1440 mm wheelbase.
It turns out 101 HP, with 9.3 kgm peak torque and an extraordinary output curve throughout an incredibly broad rpm range. The motorcycle is set 20 mm higher to provide the ground clearance needed for road riders to use its astonishing cornering ability to the full.
FEATURES IN BRIEF
ENGINE AND TECHNOLOGY
Ducati opted for the 916 engine from the SportTouring ST4 because its lowered exhaust cams are definitely a plus for so accurately designed an application as the Monster S4.
Compact head design allowed the engine to be pushed forward for a well-balanced weight distribution across axles. This is a pre-requisite for a chassis design that will ensure stability up to peak speed and is capable of conveying the tremendous power of the 916 eight-valve Desmo - as much as 101 HP in this version - to the ground.
Peak torque is over 9 kgm, 1 kgm more than the powerful Monster 900S twin-cylinder.
This performance is the result of an accurate study that lead to the development of a special version of the 916 Desmoquattro featuring an enlarged air box with resonator, a special timing of intake cams, all properly tuned to an exhaust system that uses 40mm manifolds and 900 i.e. silencers.
Lighter, more compact and efficient, a new fourth-generation Marelli CPU 5.9 provides integrated injection and ignition control.
The wiring has been made leaner to further reduce weight. A significant addition is the capability of managing supplementary features, such as an immobiliser, a total inhibition of starter and ignition while the side stand is down.
On "naked" motorcycles, the engine becomes an important aesthetic element and the Monster S4 916 sports highly accurate finish in grey-aluminium and features carbon belt covers.
The six-speed gearbox from the Superbike uses special gear spacing to make full use of torque and power under acceleration and at top speeds. Under both of these conditions, the Monster S4 scores incredibly high through the unrelenting progression made possible by the close, agile gear ratios.
The Monster S4 chassis was developed from the ST4 frame, whose structure ensures excellent torsion stiffness thanks to an accurately calculated triangular design using 28mm tubes made from 2mm thick high strength steel. In addition to high torsion and flexure stiffness, the frame will take abnormal peak loading with no risk of losing proper trim.
12mm linkages firmly secure the engine to the frame. The rear swing arm was also designed making extensive use of computer-aided finite element structural analysis to achieve an optimum weight-to-stiffness ratio in line with frame structural properties.
3D modelling techniques hinted at an aluminium swingarm as the ideal solution. The swingarm was then sized for optimum torsion and flexure stiffness to meet the needs of extreme sports-like riding making use of a power in excess of 100 HP.
This unit is made up of three elements manufactured using state-of-the-art technology. The two arms - obtained from extruded rectangular section tubes - are welded to a chill-cast central element.
The swingarm has been sized to obtain a 1440mm wheelbase. Held in the swingarm, the engine has been pushed forward for optimum balance when the rider is sitting on the bike. Weight is split evenly across the front and tail section. This is a pre-requisite for obtaining a structure that is agile, precise and solid at once, for safe riding under extreme conditions.
Steering geometry also underwent careful analysis to better suit riders' preferences regarding front section response.
Critical components, such as suspension units, were selected adopting stringent quality criteria. The front end features fully adjustable telescopic inverted Showa forks with 43mm sliders, whereas the rear suspension uses a fully adjustable Sachs shock absorber.
It has 5-spoke wheels similar to the Ducati Superbike 996 and customers can choose tyres in two sizes, 120/70-17 or 120/65-17 for the front and 180/55-17 or 190/50-17 for the rear.
Ducati opted for a Brembo braking system whose size and components are exactly the same as the Ducati Superbike models. The front brake has 320-mm twin discs in 5mm thickness and Brembo racing callipers with four P4 30-34 pistons.
Steel-braided brake lines aid this feeling of total control over the front brake. The rear brake is unchanged, with 245mm disc and two-piston calliper. To make the Monster S4 even safer, the side stand is fitted with an anti start-up sensor that totally inhibits ignition and start-up until the stand is fully retracted. Incorporated in the new CPU is an anti-theft feature, an "immobiliser" that inhibits ignition unless the original ignition key is used to start the engine up.
Top speed performance called for a more compact, lower trim to allow a natural forward position to cut through air at high speeds. Nevertheless, riding position is still much more relaxed and upright than on sports motorcycles, as is typical of the Monsters.
To give the rider superior steering sensitivity, the split handlebars are fixed directly to the top end of the fork legs, which protrude over the steering head.
The fuel tank is accurately sculpted where it meets the seat and the finely calibrated position of the footpegs allows a firm grip without putting too much stress on the rider legs.
The Monster S4 is also fitted with the new lightweight master cylinder PSC 12.
STYLING AND FINISH
However, fairing design - the core of the Monster project - is true to the original concept.
To further this concept, mechanical components come in two shades of grey. The stylish 5-spoke wheels are "gun metal grey" and the engine is aluminium.
Carbon mechanical components and fairing elements - such as timing belt covers, mudguards, side body panels and heat guards - accentuate the personality of this high performance motorcycle.
For even more demanding customers, a Cromo version with an exclusive chrome-plated fuel tank in addition to all the other details present on the S4, will also be available.